DOST-EXECOM MEETING NO. R2023-01

18 January 2023; AMCEN Board Room; 2nd Floor, AMCEN Building, MIRDC Compound

 

OPENING PRAYER to be led by DIRECTOR CESAR PEDRAZA (9:00  - 9:05 AM/5 minutes) 

A. Approval of the Provisional Agenda (9:10 - 9:15 AM/5 minutes discussion)

B. Approval of the Minutes of the Previous Meeting (9:20 - 9:30 AM/10 minutes discussion)

C. Matters Arising from the Previous Meeting (Ms. Armela K. Razo) [9:35 - 9:55AM/20 minutes discussion]

D. Councils' Update on the EXECOM Action Sheet

     PCAARRD - Dr. Reynaldo V. Ebora (10:00 - 10:15 AM/15 minutes discussion)

     PCIEERD - Dr. Enrico C. Paringit (10:20 - 10:35 AM/15 minutes discussion)

     PCHRD - Dr. Jaime C. Montoya (10:40 - 10:55 AM/15 minutes discussion)

     NRCP - Dr. Bernardo N. Sepeda (11:00 - 11:05 AM/5 minutes discussion)

E. Status of DOST-GIA Funds (Allotment and Cash)  - Asst. Secretary Maridon O. Sahagun (11:10 - 11:20 AM/10 minutes discussion)

F. Secretary's Remarks (11:25 - 11:55 PM/30 minutes)

 

L U N C H  B R E A K (12:05 -1:00 PM/55 minutes)

 

G. Programs/Projects for Discussion:

 

PART 1: NEW PROGRAMS/PROJECTS FOR FUNDING

No. Target Time of Presentation/ Q&A   PROGRAM/PROJECT S&T FIELD/FUNCTION   IMPLEMENTING/ MONITORING AGENCY Status 
1

1:05 PM
(20 minutes 
discussion and
Q&A) 

VIROLOGY AND VACCINE INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES (VIP)

Feasibility Study on Modular Manufacturing Facility for Vaccines

 

R&D - Others 1.a

 

ITDI

 

 

 DONE 

 

2

1:25 PM
(20 minutes 
discussion and
Q&A) 

SHOES AND FOOTWEAR ACCESSORIES R&D TEXTILE-BASED OMNIBUS SOLUTIONS (SAFATOS) FOR THE PHILIPPINE SHOE INDUSTRY

Integrated Computer-Aided System Toward Sustainable Philippine Footwear Product Development 

R&D - Manufacturing 1.a

PTRI

 DONE 
3

1:45 PM
(30 minutes 
discussion and
Q&A) 

 

CENTRAL HUB FOR ADVANCED MANUFACTURING R&D IN THE PHILIPPINES (CHAMP) (Formerly Advanced Additive Manufacturing Center (AMCEN) (Phase 2)

R&D-Manufacturing

 

 

 

 

 DONE   

Project 1. Technological Readiness and Innovation Through  Advanced Manufacturing in the Philippines (TRIAMPH)

MIRDC

Project 2. Materials for Application-Specific Technologies for 3D/4D Printing R&D (MAST3RD)

ITDI

4

2:15 PM
(20 minutes 
discussion and
Q&A) 

VIROLOGY AND VACCINE INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Development of Rapid Immunoassay-Based Multiplex Test Kits for the Simultaneous Screening of HIV, HBV and Syphilis

R&D - Health 1.a

Davao Medical School Foundation, Inc.

 (DMSFI)

 DONE  
5

2:35 PM
(20 minutes 
discussion and
Q&A) 

VIROLOGY AND VACCINE INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Surveillance Mapping, Risk Assessment, and Mosquito Vector Species Identification in the Japanese Encephalitis Epidemic in the Northernmost Regions of the Philippines

R&D - Health 1.a

University of Northern Philippines (UNP)

 DONE  
6

2:55 PM
(25 minutes 
discussion and
Q&A) 

 

 

 

 

DERISKING THE TUKLAS LUNAS PIPELINES: ADMET ASSAYS FOR FOR BRIDGING EFFICACY AND SAFETY (ADMET Phase II)

Project 1. Optimization of Physico-chemical Drug Properties

 R&D - Health 1.a  UPD   DONE     

Project 2. Cell-Based ADMET Assays

UPD

Project 3. HPLC and Mass Spectral Studies to Support Various ADMET Assays

UPD

Project 4. Metabolite Profiling Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

University of San Agustin (USA)

Project 5. In Vivo Analyses-Rapid Assessmsnet of Compound Exposure and Determination of Pharmacokinetic Properties

Pharmalytics Corp.

 

PART II: RENEWAL OF ONGOING PROGRAMS/PROJECTS

 

7

 

 ARLY CANCER DETECTION IN THE LIVER OF FILIPINOS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS B USING AI-DRIVEN INTEGRATION OF CLINICAL AND GENOMIC BIOMARKERS (CANDLE STUDY)

Date of PCHRD Endorsement Letter: 09 December 2022

Project 2. AI-driven Integration of Genomic, Ultrasound, Serum Biomarkers, and Clinical data for Early Diagnosis of Liver Cancer

Year 3 Duration: 04 January 2023 - 03 January 2024 (Y3 of 3 Years)

 

R&D - Health 1.a

 

UPLB

DONE 

8

 

NICER: ESTABLISHING THE INTEGRATED PROTEIN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER (IPRDC): A BIOTECHNOLOGY FACILITY  FOR HEALTH

Date of PCHRD Endorsement Letter: 05 January 2023

Project 1. Enzyme Production: Cloning, Fermentation, Expression and Characterisation at Small Scale

Year 2 Duration:  01 January 2023 - 31 December 2023 (Y2 of 3 Years)

Project 2. Scaling Up and Optimization of Protein Production

Year 2 Duration:  01 January 2023 - 31 December 2023 (Y2 of 3 Years)

Project 3. Building Open-Source Instrumentation for Fermentation and Protein Purification

Year 2 Duration:  01 January 2023 - 31 December 2023 (Y2 of 3 Years)

Project 4. Development of Chemical Tools and Materials for Protein Purification

 

R&D - Health 1.a

 

ADMU

DONE  
9  

NICER: CENTER FOR APPLIED MODELING, DATA ANALYTICS, AND BIOINFORMATICS FOR DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN HEALTH

Date of PCHRD Endorsement Letter: 09 January 2023

Project 2. Risk Management and Enhanced Survival Analysis Integrated through Longitudinal Infectious Disease Data and Statistical Epidemiological Model Using Clinical Risk Factors

Year 2 Duration:  01 February 2023 - 31 January 2024 (Y2 of 3 Years)

R&D - Health 1.a

Mapua Malayan Colleges Mindanao (MMCM)

DONE  
10   

NOVEL APPROACHES TO TREATMENT OF ADDICTION AND DEPRESSION USING ANIMAL MODELS

Date of PCHRD Endorsement Letter: 06 January 2023

Project 1. Cessation of Toluene (Rugby) Addiction in Adolescents: Using a Rodent Model to Test Novel Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments for Overcoming Withdrawal and Craving

Year 3 Duration:  01 February 2023 - 31 January 2024 (Y3 of 3 Years)

R&D - Health 1.a UPM-National Institutes of Health (NIH) DONE  
03:25 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

Project 2.  Assessment of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interactions of Selected Psychobiotic and Antidepressant Drugs in Depression-Like Rat Model

R&D - Health 1.a 

 UPM-National Institutes of Health (NIH)

 DONE
11  03:45 PM
(30 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

NICER: BIOMATERIALS FOR DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPEUTICS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER

Date of PCHRD Endorsement Letter: 20 December 2022

Project 1. Development of a POCT Device for Rotavirus (Viral Gastroenteritis) Detection

Year 2 Duration:  01 February 2023 - 31 January 2024 (Y2 of 2 Years)

Project 2. Fecal Lactoferrin, Myeloperoxidase, and Calprotectin as Differential Markers of Pediatric Acute Gastroenteritis: A Preliminary Investigation

Year 2 Duration:  01 February 2023 - 31 January 2024 (Y2 of 2 Years)

Project 3. Synthesis of Biocompatible Nanomaterial Conjugated Rabies Peptide Immunogen

R&D - Health 1.a

Angeles University Foundation (AUF)

  DONE    
12 04:15 PM
(30 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)
 

MULTI-OMICS RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR HEALTH (MORPH)

Date of PCHRD Endorsement Letter: 05 January 2023

Project 1. Monitoring Drug Efficacy through Multi-Omics Research Initiative in Alzheimer’s Disease (MEMORI-AD)

Year 2 Duration: 15 February 2023 - 14 February 2024 (Y2 of 3 Years)

Project 2. Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Immunophenotyping of Adult Filipino TB/HIV Co-infected Patients

Year 2 Duration: 15 February 2023 - 14 February 2024 (Y2 of 3 Years)

Project 3. Determinants of Acquisition, Persistence, and Clearance of Oncogenic Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection in a Cohort of Women in Rural and Urban Philippines Using a Multi-OMICS Approach

R&D-Health 1.a

UP-Manila

 DONE
13  

PHILIPPINE PROGRAM FOR DIAGNOSTIC BIOMARKERS, DISEASE MODELING AND NUTRACEUTICAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT (PHIL-DIAMOND): INITIAL FOCUS ON HIV-RELATED NEUROCOGNITIVE AND METABOLIC COMPLICATIONS

Project 1.  Biomarkers of Immune Dysfunction in HIV – Associated Metabolic and Neurocognitive Complications

R&D - Health 1.a

UPM

 DONE 
 

Project 2.  Development of HIV Disease Models and In-Vitro Investigation of HIV-related Neurocognitive and Metabolic Complications

R&D - Health 1.a

UPD

DONE  
  04:45 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)
Project 3. Development of a Safe Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)-based Biofunctional Health-promoting Product as an Adjunct Intervention for the Management of HIV-associated Metabolic Complications R&D - Health 1.a UPM  DONE   
14  

MECO-TECO VOTE PROGRAM: GROWTH OF AN ISLAND ARC (GAIA): TECTONIC CONSEQUENCES AND HUMAN IMPACTS 

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 21 December 2022

Project 1. Evolution of the Luzon Arc: From Igneous to Sedimentary Processess

Year 3 Duration: 04 January 2023 - 03 January 2024 (Year 3 of 3 Years)

Project 2. Tectonic Consequences of Subduction in Northern Luzon

Year 3 Duration: 04 January 2023 - 03 January 2024 (Year 3 of 3 Years)

 

R&D - Environment 1.a UPD-National Institute of Geological Sciences (NIGS)  DONE 
15  

Establishment of PRR-1 Subcritical Assembly for Training, Education and Research (SATER)

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 21 December 2022

Year 3 Duration: 06 January 2023 - 05 January 2024(Year 3 of 3 Years)

Innovative HRD 1.c PNRI  DONE 
16  

MECO-TECO-VOTE: Landslide Investigations on Geohazards for Timely Advisories in the Philippines (LIGTAS)

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 23 December 2022

Year 3 Duration: 01 January to 31 December 2023(Year 3 of 3 Years)

R&D - Disaster Management 1.a UPLB-SESAM  DONE 
17  

DOST HALAL REDI TOURISM PROGRAM: DOST HALAL RESEARCH ECOSYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION (REDI) PROGRAM IN SUPPORT TO THE PHILIPPINE TOURISM INDUSTRY

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 13 December 2022

Project 1. Establishment of Halal Assurance Management System and Halal-Compliant Standardized Process for Spa Skincare Products for the Halal Tourism Industry

Year 2 Duration: 01 January to 30 June 2022 (Year 2 of 2 Years)

R&D - Others 1.a ITDI  DONE 

Project 2. DOST ETCH: Enhanced Testing Capabilities of Dost Halal Verification Laboratories (HVLs) in Support to Philippine Tourism Industry

Year 2 Duration: 01 January to 31 December 2022 (Year 2 of 2 Years)

DOST ROs- 4A, 11, 12 and MOST-BARMM DONE  

Project 3. Development and Deployment of Halal Tourism Training Module and Halal Assurance Systems (Has) to Secure Halal Compliance of Tourism Establishments

Year 2 Duration: 01 January to 31 December 2022 (Year 2 of 2 Years)

DOST Regional Office  and  MOST BARMM  DONE 
18  

FOOD AUTHENTICITY AND TRACEABILITY USING ISOTOPE TECHNIQUES PROGRAM

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 13 December 2022

Project 1. Complementing Conventional Techniques with Isotope Techniques to Detect Inorganic Fertilizer Application and Haram Ingredients in Food Production 

Year 2 Duration: 01 January to 31 December 2022 (Year 2 of 2 Years)

Project 2. Adulteration Detection and Fingerprinting of Philippine Honey Using Stable Isotopes (Phase 2)

Year 2 Duration: 01 January to 31 December 2022 (Year 2 of 2 Years)

Project 3. Tracing the Geographic Origin of Philippine Carabao Mango Through ChemoIsotopic Fingerprinting

Year 2 Duration: 01 January to 31 December 2022 (Year 2 of 2 Years)

 

R&D 1.a PNRI DONE  
  05:05 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

Project 4. Stable Isotope and Multi-Elemental Profiling of Coffee and Cacao Beans in the Philippines by IRMS and XRF for Origin  Identification

Year 2 Duration: 01 January to 31 December 2022 (Year 2 of 2 Years)

R&D 1.a DLSU  DONE 
19   05:25 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

TECHNICAL BATTLE AGAINST COVID19

Heterojunction of Graphene-based Composites for Membrane Applications in Covid19 Pandemic Mitigation

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 09 January 2023 

Year 2 Duration: 01 November 2022 - 31 October 2023

(suspended since November)

R&D - Others 1.a UPD-Marine Science Engneering Program (MSEP)  DONE 
20   05:45 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

NICER: CENTER FOR LAKES SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 

Project 2: Predictive Estimation of Ecologic Carrying Capacity: Tool For Sustainable Aquaculture Development In Selected Crater Lakes in the Province Of Quezon

Year 2 Duration: 01 October 2022 - 30 September 2023 (Year 2 of 2 Years)

(suspended since October due to NRCP's concern regardng non-compliance of the Project Leader to submit the liquidation documents of NRCP-funded project)

R&D - Environment 1.a Laguna State Polytechnic College (LSPC) DONE 
21   06:05 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

NICER: CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES & COMPLIANCE  (ENVITEC)

Project 1. Synergistic Air and Water Quality Sensing System with Purification Devices using Local Materials for MSMEs (AWQMP)

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 21 December 2022

Year 2 Duration:  1 December 2022 - 30 November 2023 (Y2 of 2 Years)

(Suspended since 01 December 2022)

R&D - Environment 1.a Polytechnic University of the Philippines  (PUP) DONE 

Project 2. Production of Polymeric Carbon Nanodots from Waste Plastic for Gas and Microplastic Identification and Detection

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 04 January 2023

Year 2 Duration:  1 December 2022 - 30 November 2023 (Y2 of 2 Years)

(Suspended since 01 December 2022)

Adamson University (AdU)  DONE 
22   06:35 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

NICER: COASTAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT R&D CENTER

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 21 December 2022

Project 2. Assessment, Monitoring and Prediction of Coastal Flooding of Selected Municipalities in Region 1

Year 2 Duration:  01 January 2023 - 31 December 2023 (Y2 of 3 Years)

R&D - DRR 1.a Mariano Marcos State University (MMSU)  DONE

Project 3. Development of Science-Based Engineering Approach to Coastal Protection in Region 1

Year 2 Duration:  01 January 2023 - 31 December 2023 (Y2 of 3 Years)

Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University (DMMMSU)

DONE 

Project 4. Enhancing Coastal Design and Infrastructure Intervention Through the Establishment of Wave Testing Facility 

Year 2 Duration:  01 January 2023 - 31 December 2023 (Y2 of 3 Years)

MMSU

DONE 
  

 

PART III. REPROGRAMMING REQUEST OF ONGOING PROGRAMS/PROJECTS 

 

 23    

NICER: SEAWEED R&D CENTER

Project 1. Optimization of Laboratory and Land-Based Nursery Culture Technologies of Farmed Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma Denticulatum

Date of PCAARRD's Endorsement: 03 January 2023

Project 1. Optimization of laboratory and Land-Based Nursery Culture Technologies of Farmed Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma denticulatum

Year 3 Duration:  16 February 2022 - 15 February 2023 (Y3 of 3 Years)

Approved Extension Period: 16 February 2023 - 15 August 2023 (6 months)

Project 2. Molecular Characterization, Selection, and Production of High Quality Eucheumatoid Cultivars in the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (BARMM)

Year 3 Duration:  16 February 2022 - 15 February 2023 (Y3 of 3 Years)

Approved Extension Period: 16 February 2023 - 15 August 2023 (6 months)

Project 3. Optimization of Post-Harvest Handling of Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma denticulatum 

Year 3 Duration:  16 February 2022 - 15 February 2023 (Y3 of 3 Years)

Approved Extension Period: 16 February 2023 - 15 August 2023 (6 months)

 R&D - Agriculture 1.a  MSU-Tawi-Tawi College of Technology and Oceneanography (TCTO)  DONE 
24   

DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTH PRODUCTS: DISEASE-SPECIFIC BIOACTIVE HITS FROM TERRESTRIAL ORGANISMS

Date of PCHRD's Endorsement: 09 December 2022

Confirmatory and Orthogonal Assays to Eliminate Artefactual Drug Bioactivities (Phase 3): Continuing Needs of the Tuklas Lunas Program

 R&D - Health 1.a  UPD  DONE 
25   

NICER: CENTER FOR APPLIED MODELING, DATA ANALYTICS, AND BIOINFORMATICS FOR DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN HEALTH

Date of PCHRD Endorsement Letter: 09 January 2023

Project 4. Integrated Wastewater-Based Epidemiology and Data Analytics for Community- Level Pathogen Surveillance and Genetic Tracking: Proof-of-Concept

Year 2 Duration:  01 February 2022 - 31 January 2023 (Y2 of 2 Years)

Approved Extension Period: 01 February 2023 - 30 April 2023 (3 months)

 R&D - Health 1.a  UP Mindanao  DONE 
26     07:05 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

CLINICAL PROTEOMICS FOR CANCER INITIATIVE: A PROTEOMIC-BASED DISCOVERY OF NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER BIOMARKERS AND DRUG TARGETS IN THE PHILIPPINES

Date of PCHRD's Endorsement: 12 December 2022

Project 1. Assembly and Archiving of Clinical Samples for Proteomic Analysis

R&D - Health 1.a  Lung Center of the Philippines (LCP)   DONE 
Project 2. Sample Processing for Proteomic Analysis and Functional Characterization and Early Clinical Confirmation of Biomarker Application UPD DONE  

Project 3. Proteomic Analysis of Aberrant Protein Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) 

Program Y3 Duration: 07 January 2021 to 06 January 2022 (Y3 of 3 Years)

Program First Extension Period: 07 January 2022 to 06 January 2023 (1 Year)

Proposed Program Second Extension Period: 07 January 2023 to 06 July 2023 (6 months)

UPD DONE  
27   07:25 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

Regional Prospective Observational Research for Tuberculosis (RePORT): Long-term outcomes of diagnosed tuberculosis cases in the Philippines

Date of PCHRD's Endorsement: 12 December 2022

Year 3 Duration:  01 December 2020 - 30 November 2021 (Y3 of 3 Years)

First Extension Period:  01 December 2021 - 31 May 2022 (6 months)

Second Extension Period: 01 June 2022 - 30 November 2022 (6 months)

Proposed Third Extension Period: 01 December 2022 - 28 February 2023 (3 months)

R&D - Health 1.a UPM DONE  
28   07:40 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

Smarter Philippines through Data Analytics R&D, Training and Adoption (SPARTA) 

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 12 December 2022

Year 3 Duration: 15 November 2021 - 14 November 2022 (Year 3 of 3 Years)

Approved Extension Period: 15 November 2022 - 14 November 2023 (12 months)

Innovative HRD 1.c Development Academy of the Phils. (DAP)  DONE
29   07:55 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

System for Optimized Routing for Transport (SORT) 

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 21 November 2022

Year 2 Approved Duration:  06 April 2022 - 05 April 2023

R&D - Others 1.a DLSU DONE 
30   

Design of a Modular Stator, Segmental Rotor Switched Reluctance Motor

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 14 December 2022

Year 2 Duration: 01 January - 31 December 2022

Approved Extension Period: 01 January - 30 April 2023 (4 months)

 R&D - Others 1.a  UPD-EEEI DONE  
31  

Philippine Comprehensive Nationwide Construction Resources Technical Evaluation (Philippine CoNCReTE)

Date of PCIEERD's Endorsement: 07 December 2022

Approved Duration:  30 May 2021 - 29 May 2022

Deferment Period: 18 January 2022 - 28 February 2022

Revised End Date:  09 July 2022

Approved 1st Extension:  10 July 2022 - 09 October 2022 (3 months)

Approved 2nd Extension:  10 October 2022 - 09 March 2023 (5 months)

R&D - Industry 1.a UP NIGS DONE  
32   08:10 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)

Support to the Implementation of the Balik Scientist Program (BSP) Pursuant to R.A. No. 11035 Otherwise Known as the Balik Scientist Act (PCIEERD Component)

Date of NRCP's Endorsement: 21 December 2022

First Extension Period: 01 January - 31 December 2021 (12 months)

Second Extension Period: 01 January - 31 December 2022 (12 months)

Proposed Third Extension Period: 03 January - 31 December 2023 (12 months)

Innovative HRD 1.c PCIEERD  DONE 
33  08:25 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)
CY 2023 SETUP Program Mobilization Budget (PMB) Budget of DOST ROs DOST Regional Offices (ROs)  DONE   
34   08:45 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)
Upgrading the Processing Efficiency of Mechaphil Corporation Thru the Adoption of Advanced Technology Technology Transfer / Commercialization 1.b Mechaphil Corp. / DOST Region III DONE  
35   09:05 PM
(20 minutes
discussion and
Q&A)
Upgrading the Woodworking Technology in the Production of Wooden Doors of Budget Builders, Inc. in Cogon Pardo, Cebu City Technology Transfer / Commercialization 1.b Budget Builders, Inc. / DOST Region VII  DONE  

H. Report on Liquidation of DOST-GIA Projects  (9:10 - 9:20 PM/10 minutes discussion)

I. Adjournment of EXECOM Meeting  (9:25 PM)
 

 

 

Legend (Function):

1.a R&D

1.b Research and Development Results Utilization (RDRU)

1.c Development of Human Resources and R&D Institutions for the S&T Sector (DHR & R&D for the S&T Sector)

1.d Provision of Quality S&T Services, Policy Advocacy, S&T Promotion